Step 15: Use the small arc at the bottom as a guide to draw the feet. Darken the path of the guide but make it wavier. At the tip, add a couple of pointy shapes for the claws. Draw a few lines in the middle of the shape for the slight separation of the penguin's webbed toes. Add a similar shape right above the one you just drew for the visible portion of the other foot.
Step 16: For a cleaner look, erase as much as you can of the initial guide lines. Don't worry about erasing all of the guides. It's okay to leave some behind. Re-draw any final sketch lines you may have accidentally erased.
Final Step: Add some shading to your penguin drawing for extra detail. Use a dark value for the beak, except for a couple of spots near the middle. Use a medium value around the eye and a dark value at the top of the head and neck. Magellanic penguins have a thick, white strip along the head, so leave that section blank.
Outline the dark sections on the bird's body and then shade them in. The dark areas are on the back, the neck and a strip across the chest that curves toward the bottom. Make the edges of the strip across the chest a bit wavy. The penguin's flipper should also have a dark value, but leave the edges white. Shading can be time-consuming, so be patient and take breaks.
Try to add the value evenly across the body for a smooth coat and avoid a rough, gritty texture. Vary the pressure on your pencil to get different degrees of tonal value. Add a few spots along the strip on the chest and use a medium value for the feet.
Add a cast shadow underneath. This helps ground the penguin so it doesn't appear to be floating.
Add a bit more shading to the white sections to give the penguin drawing more dimension and volume. It's always a good idea to use reference when you draw. Don't forget to pause the video to draw at your own pace.